The “General Prologue” tells a story about the narrator Geoffrey Chaucer joining a group of pilgrims in April, going to Canterbury, here the shrine of Saint Thomas Becket is located. The poem immediately opened with a discussion of April and why it is perfect for people to go into pilgrimages. According to the first lines, April rains and warm western wind restore people’s liveliness and fertility. It so happens that in England, a famous destination for pilgrimages is the shrine of Thomas Becket. This is why the narrator also went, where he observed all sorts of pilgrims. He provided a lively description of the people journeying to the shrine, talking about their conditions and social degree. He listed all the kinds of people he was with in the pilgrimage, which included a knight and his son, who is described as a squire, a yeoman, a monk, a clerk, a miller, a summoner, and much more. The pilgrims can be categorized as secular pilgrims and religious pilgrims. Each of the pilgrims was described in detail in the poem, where the narrator talked about their background and appearance, including their best traits and certain quirks. The host is described to as a big man. Towards the end, the author described the host proposing a story-telling contest, where each of the people part of the pilgrimage will share two stories as they make the journey to Canterbury then another two when they journey back. The best storyteller gets a free meal. The host described the best story as one with the greatest moral and the most entertaining. They all agreed to the deal and went to sleep. The next day, the drew straws to determine who would tell their stories first. It was the knight. As he starts the storytelling game, the group set sail for Canterbury.
Opiate Addiction and Treatment (Annotated Bibliography)
Sordo, Luis, et al. “Mortality risk during and after opioid substitution treatment: systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.” BMJ 357, j1550: 2017.
The article prompted me to consider the effectiveness of the contemporary methods uses in treating addiction to opioids. Through the reading, I realized that it is important to consider the effects of the treatment administered on the health of the addict. The fact that multiple deaths have been registered following the administration of methadone or buprenorphine made me realize that treatment practices are not evidence–based. From the reading, I was led to understand the essence of an evidence-based approach to treatment administration. With facts regarding the effects of the treatment that is used on the addicts, I believe there will be better chances of succeeding in the efforts to rehabilitate.
Opiate Addiction Annotated Bibliography
Lincoln T, Johnson BD, Mccarthy P, Alexander E. Extended-release naltrexone for opioid use
disorder started during or following incarceration. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. 2017. doi:10.1016/j.jsat.2017.04.002. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28479011
The article studies the outcomes of a possible procedure for people incarcerated due to addiction to opioids. In the article, the authors used an experiment whereby 67 jail releases with opioid dependence took part. Out of the 67 participants, 47 received XR-NTX before their release while the other 20 received it after their release. The study outcomes were to be used to assist the people incarcerated due to opioid addictions to lead opioid-free lives. According to the study results, the group initiated to extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) before release from incarceration centers displayed a higher treatment retention rate than the group that began treatment after release. The study results proofed the assumption that starting treatment before release from incarceration centers benefits opioid addicts. The study also recorded negative and positive benefits including the deaths that occurred during the study period. The aim was to identify the reality of the treatment method and its reliability in treating opioid addicts.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Repeated reading (RR) is a popular intervention used to improve fluency in struggling readers (Meyer & Felton, 1999; Samuals, 1979; National Reading Panel, 2000). RR has a history of helping students build reading fluency for over 40 years (Kostewicz, Kubina, & Gallagher, 2016). Several types of research indicated that repeated reading is an evidence-based practice and provide research supporting this view (Dowhower ,1989, Therrien, 2004, Herman, 1985,Vadasy & Sanders, 2008, Musti-Rao et al., 2009, Lo, Cooke, and Starling, 2011 and Zawoyski, Ardoin, Binder, 2014). The National Reading Panel in 2000 identified RR as an effective method for increasing word recognition, fluency, and comprehension. However, researchers such as Savaiano and Hatton, 2013, Ari, 2011, and Hawkins et al., 2015 have found inconclusive evidence that RR is more effective than other teaching used for improving students’ fluency and comprehension. Therrien’s research indicates the variations in effectiveness are correlated with the types of methods used within the RR program being studied (Therrien, 2004). Thus, a critical review of RR studies should be established to discuss their general efficacy, delineate “best practice,” and target areas requiring further research. The discussion of the RR studies cannot be undertaken without first acquiring a greater understanding of the foundation for this intervention. Hence, in this chapter repeated reading will be examined in greater detail, focusing on how it is conceptualized theoretically and how RR interventions have been applied in practice.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Empirical Studies of Repeated Reading
Studies specifically addressing repeated reading outcomes since 1979 have number over hundreds, with countless others either using it as a method or just mentioning it as a method for effective reading without focusing on the intervention itself. There were more than 200 reviews of repeated reading interventions that have appeared in the literature since that time (Meyer & Felton, 1999; Kuhn & Stahl, 2003), including multiple meta-analyses (NRP, 2000; Chard, Vaughn, & Tyler, 2002; Therrien, 2004; Morgan & Sideridis, 2006). The following review begins with the meta-analyses as support of RR. Then, individual studies are reviewed to examine more closely the variability across studies in an attempt to identify the most promising applications and delineate gaps in our current knowledge
Sexual exploitation of children refers a form of abuse where people younger than the age of 18 are forced or manipulated into engaging in sexual practices. It can occur in the form of consensual relationship or done in return for financial or other favors (Pickett, et al., 2013). Sexual exploitation of children affects both boys and girls, and devastating effects are inflicted on both genders. However, the current trend indicates that the public seems to put emphasis on the girl child exploitation and to neglect the sexual exploitation of the young boys. Consequently, sexual exploitation of children seems to escalate. Governments are setting legislations to prevent child abuse, in a move to curb the menace. Therefore, the purpose of this literature review is to explore the available literature relating to sexual exploitation of children to establish the scope of the problem, the past, and present trends, the effectiveness of the judiciary in dealing with child exploitation cases and any possible measures to implement.