Human lifespan development explores the emotional, perceptual, intellectual, social, cognitive and physical growth of an individual. About this, cyberbullying affects the development n of children in a negative way. The purpose of this research is to explore the effects of cyber bullying on adolescent’s psychosocial development. The research will involve evaluating three different research papers conducted on the topic to evaluate the impact of cyberbullying on human lifespan development. The results indicate that cyber bullying retards the social development of adolescents.
Cyber bullying has been on the increase over the previous years. As the technology and the use of the internet increases, the threat of cyberbullying also increases. Apparently, most of the victims of cyber bullying are young people within the adolescent age. This paper will approach the issue cyberbullying from the perspective of Freud’s theory of psychosexual development. The theory explains the way personality is developed during childhood. According to the theory, personality develops through a series of stages of childhood in which the child develops pleasure-seeking energies in erogenous areas.
The purpose of the study by Cappadocia et al. (2013) is to examine the trends in cyberbullying and cyber victimization over one year period of adolescence. It evaluates the issue alongside with contextual factors and associated individuals. The research associated cyberbullying with antisocial behaviors, prosocial peer influence, grade level, levels of depression, as well as taking part in real-life victimization.
The research is carried out using qualitative research approach. Data for the research was secondary data drawn health behavior of school-going children in the Canadian healthcare records. On the other hand, the Canadian health data was collected by (WHO). Participants of the study were collected selected from the Canadian health data using a random sampling technique in which everyone individual had the chance of being chosen. Other factors considered in the research were the location. Qualitative data analysis methods were then used to evaluate the data (Cappadocia et al., 2013).
The results of the research indicate that the stability of involvement in cyber bullying reduced with the second exposure. In the same way, cyber victimization reduced with the prevalence of exposure to the condition that proved ideal for victimization to take place. A t-test conducted on the results to compare the impact of gender on the prevalence of cyberbullying and cyber victimization indicated that all genders are involved in cyberbullying, but the females are more affected by the vice. On the other hand, a regression analysis indicated that student reported a reduction in cyber bullying and cyber victimization over the one year period of which they were being studied. In general, the research realizes that students use cyber bullying and cyber victimization as a way to display their adolescent energies (Cappadocia et al., 2013).
Analyzing the Research
The research outlines the possible limitations of the study. From the evidence, the research was done on world health organization data on behavioral development and explores other factors other than just cyberbullying. Because of the disparity in what is being explored in the research, little emphasis is put on the actual issues of cyber victimization and cyberbullying. The research would have been more effective in evaluating the key concepts of the research if they had diversifies their sources of data. The research findings can be used in psychology professional setting to describe what causes cyber bullying among young people and use it as a basis for providing efficient behavioral care for young people.
The purpose of the study by Van et al. (2014) is to make a comparison the psychosocial consequences and antecedent of online and offline victimization. In specific terms, the research examined the relationship between real-life and online victimization and the psychosocial problems that are related to the incidence. In addition to the primary purpose, the paper also aimed at exploring the moderating role of online aggression and its relation to victimization.
The study was carried out as a three-wave longitudinal research, which was part of a wider research. Primary research was done in this case, and it involved a group of students in grade school. Questionnaires were administered to the students who filed the questionnaires upon the consent of the student, the teachers and the parents of the participating students (Van et al., 2014).
The results of the research indicated that adolescents with an advanced level of social anxiety and loneliness a high probability of getting victimization both online and in offline. Additionally, the results indicated that those that display online aggression are at a high risk of undergoing victimization both online and in real life (Van et al., 2014).
Analyzing the Research
The research findings indicate that it is the involvement of the student in online aggression and loneliness that triggers online victimization and cyber bullying. It follows that possible retraction from loneliness and online aggression can help to prevent online and real-life victimization. This research can be used in developmental psychology to devise ways in which cyber victimization can be eradicated among adolescents.
This research by Underwood & Ehrenreich (2017) was aimed at discussing the theoretical framework for understanding adolescent involvement in social media, evaluate the less recognized problems arising from the media and evaluate the positive aspects of social media. The research wanted to test the hypothesis that there is continuity if adolescent lives from online to offline.
The study incorporates a qualitative approach to handling the issue in question. Secondary data is collected and used for the study. It uses findings of previous research done on the topic and evaluates it according to the current research methodology to come up with a connection between various variables. The most critical part of the paper is the literature search that outlines a previous overview research on cyberbullying (Underwood & Ehrenreich, 2017).
This study outcome indicated that adolescent has an intense involvement in digital communication. As a result of this engagement, they end up being exposed to being hurt in their online experiences. However, it does not happen in a way that adults think. They may suffer exclusion when they see friends gathering (Underwood & Ehrenreich, 2017).
Analyzing the Research
Even though the research gives a comprehensive view of the topics under cyberbullying in adolescents, the paper relies more on previous research which may result to some biases. The outcome of this research would be beneficial in understanding the reality of how students face victimization from their point of view rather than the adult point of view.
Both the first, second and third articles agree with the human lifespan development theory selected for the case. The Freud’s theory of psychosexual development holds that the adolescent period is characterized by adolescents finding ways of manifesting their energies. Some tend to manifest the energies through bullying others online. The information gained through these studies can be used to curb cyberbullying and its effects among adolescents.
Cappadocia, M. C., Craig, W. M., & Pepler, D. (2013). Cyberbullying: prevalence, stability, and Risk Factors during adolescence. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 28(2), 171-192.
Underwood, M. K., & Ehrenreich, S. E. (2017). The power and the pain of adolescents’ digital communication: Cyber victimization and the perils of lurking. American Psychologist, 72(2), 144.
van den Eijnden, R., Vermulst, A., van Rooij, A. J., Scholte, R., & van de Mheen, D. (2014). The bidirectional relationships between online victimization and psychosocial problems in adolescents: A comparison with real-life victimization. Journal of youth and adolescence, 43(5), 790-802.