REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Repeated reading (RR) is a popular intervention used to improve fluency in struggling readers (Meyer & Felton, 1999; Samuals, 1979; National Reading Panel, 2000). RR has a history of helping students build reading fluency for over 40 years (Kostewicz, Kubina, & Gallagher, 2016). Several types of research indicated that repeated reading is an evidence-based practice and provide research supporting this view (Dowhower ,1989, Therrien, 2004, Herman, 1985,Vadasy & Sanders, 2008, Musti-Rao et al., 2009, Lo, Cooke, and Starling, 2011 and Zawoyski, Ardoin, Binder, 2014). The National Reading Panel in 2000 identified RR as an effective method for increasing word recognition, fluency, and comprehension. However, researchers such as Savaiano and Hatton, 2013, Ari, 2011, and Hawkins et al., 2015 have found inconclusive evidence that RR is more effective than other teaching used for improving students’ fluency and comprehension. Therrien’s research indicates the variations in effectiveness are correlated with the types of methods used within the RR program being studied (Therrien, 2004). Thus, a critical review of RR studies should be established to discuss their general efficacy, delineate “best practice,” and target areas requiring further research. The discussion of the RR studies cannot be undertaken without first acquiring a greater understanding of the foundation for this intervention. Hence, in this chapter repeated reading will be examined in greater detail, focusing on how it is conceptualized theoretically and how RR interventions have been applied in practice.
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REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Empirical Studies of Repeated Reading
Studies specifically addressing repeated reading outcomes since 1979 have number over hundreds, with countless others either using it as a method or just mentioning it as a method for effective reading without focusing on the intervention itself. There were more than 200 reviews of repeated reading interventions that have appeared in the literature since that time (Meyer & Felton, 1999; Kuhn & Stahl, 2003), including multiple meta-analyses (NRP, 2000; Chard, Vaughn, & Tyler, 2002; Therrien, 2004; Morgan & Sideridis, 2006). The following review begins with the meta-analyses as support of RR. Then, individual studies are reviewed to examine more closely the variability across studies in an attempt to identify the most promising applications and delineate gaps in our current knowledge
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TABLE OF CONTENTS (Can be found in the end)
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Motivation and Problem Statement
Today, corporate governance has become integral in the business world especially due to the fact that it is largely related to the performance as well as the growth of business firms. Corporate governance is and continues to play a central role when it comes to the success of a company in the current highly competitive business world. Financial risk reporting in the United Kingdom is viewed as a valuable internal control mechanism and as such is crucially highlighted in the UK Corporate Governance Code. Over the past two decades, the concept and practice of corporate governance has gradually become the central focus for academics, managers as well as policy makers. This can be attributed to the increasing concerns over the rising incidences of corporate fraud as well as fraudulent financial reporting leading to corporate scandals and the collapse of major firms. This significant attention given to corporate governance structures and principles in firms indicates that it has a major influence on both the policies and strategies; hence, the eventual performance of these corporations.
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