Equality and the overall social and economic condition of any country stem from leadership. There is no such thing as a perfect, utopian, government; however, institutions such as a democracy or the republic, as we see in the United States, have come closer than any of their dictatorial ancestors. Our democratic republic has established a system in which leaders and officials are chosen, directly or indirectly, by the people. The ideology a leadership candidate spreads must be appealing to many of the general public in order for to succeed in gaining such a position of power. Be that as it may, throughout history there have existed numerous examples of autocracies; systems of government in which there exists one supreme ruler or a few people with total control. No doubt, the allure of leading peoples (that, invariably, gives way to the fatal attraction of having power), has always corrupted the minds of aspiring leaders throughout our history. Where democracy creates a people’s’ choice, autocracy diminishes its importance and, in turn, its existence. In cases of dictatorship, or autocracy, one may see a running trend of despotism and destruction.
TESOL – Teaching Language in Use: An Interview with David
Teaching a language in use can be a complex, multidimensional activity, which requires the instructor and the learners to juggle various tasks together with goals concurrently as they adapt to the immediate contexts. An effective teaching and learning of English language are attained when the instructor is cognizant of the appropriate characteristics of principles. The appropriate application of these principles can aid teachers to create the favorable conditions, which support the learning of students and at the same time help in minimizing the need for revision materials, policies as well as content. Although the process of executing these principles also consumes much time and effort, it is in effect on energy and time in the long run. For instance, the generational and cultural backgrounds of the students largely influence how they perceive the world. In other words, the disciplinary backgrounds guide learners in approaching challenges in diverse ways; and their preliminary knowledge anchored on accurate with inaccurate aspects contribute in shaping new learning. Although teachers cannot satisfactorily measure all of the characteristics, collecting the vitally applicable facts in prompt course planning and enduring to do the same during the semester can help in informing course design, explaining student difficulties as well as guiding instructional adaptations such as the recognition of the necessity for extra practice. Effective teaching of language in use should be entrenched in such principles as language has a sound system, language is spoken in discourses, language has a social significance, learner attitudes largely affect motivation, fear of making mistakes largely inhibits one’s learning, and repetition assists the concept to be internalized. The use of these principles enhances the learners’ comprehension abilities and the manner in which the context shapes the use of language among the students. The essay demonstrates the students’ understanding of the importance of context in language teaching, and how context shapes the use of language. It also demonstrates how the pragmatic principles are or how they can be applied to the chosen material design regarding activity 2 of developing the listening skill.