REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Repeated reading (RR) is a popular intervention used to improve fluency in struggling readers (Meyer & Felton, 1999; Samuals, 1979; National Reading Panel, 2000). RR has a history of helping students build reading fluency for over 40 years (Kostewicz, Kubina, & Gallagher, 2016). Several types of research indicated that repeated reading is an evidence-based practice and provide research supporting this view (Dowhower ,1989, Therrien, 2004, Herman, 1985,Vadasy & Sanders, 2008, Musti-Rao et al., 2009, Lo, Cooke, and Starling, 2011 and Zawoyski, Ardoin, Binder, 2014). The National Reading Panel in 2000 identified RR as an effective method for increasing word recognition, fluency, and comprehension. However, researchers such as Savaiano and Hatton, 2013, Ari, 2011, and Hawkins et al., 2015 have found inconclusive evidence that RR is more effective than other teaching used for improving students’ fluency and comprehension. Therrien’s research indicates the variations in effectiveness are correlated with the types of methods used within the RR program being studied (Therrien, 2004). Thus, a critical review of RR studies should be established to discuss their general efficacy, delineate “best practice,” and target areas requiring further research. The discussion of the RR studies cannot be undertaken without first acquiring a greater understanding of the foundation for this intervention. Hence, in this chapter repeated reading will be examined in greater detail, focusing on how it is conceptualized theoretically and how RR interventions have been applied in practice.
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REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Empirical Studies of Repeated Reading
Studies specifically addressing repeated reading outcomes since 1979 have number over hundreds, with countless others either using it as a method or just mentioning it as a method for effective reading without focusing on the intervention itself. There were more than 200 reviews of repeated reading interventions that have appeared in the literature since that time (Meyer & Felton, 1999; Kuhn & Stahl, 2003), including multiple meta-analyses (NRP, 2000; Chard, Vaughn, & Tyler, 2002; Therrien, 2004; Morgan & Sideridis, 2006). The following review begins with the meta-analyses as support of RR. Then, individual studies are reviewed to examine more closely the variability across studies in an attempt to identify the most promising applications and delineate gaps in our current knowledge
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Sexual exploitation of children refers a form of abuse where people younger than the age of 18 are forced or manipulated into engaging in sexual practices. It can occur in the form of consensual relationship or done in return for financial or other favors (Pickett, et al., 2013). Sexual exploitation of children affects both boys and girls, and devastating effects are inflicted on both genders. However, the current trend indicates that the public seems to put emphasis on the girl child exploitation and to neglect the sexual exploitation of the young boys. Consequently, sexual exploitation of children seems to escalate. Governments are setting legislations to prevent child abuse, in a move to curb the menace. Therefore, the purpose of this literature review is to explore the available literature relating to sexual exploitation of children to establish the scope of the problem, the past, and present trends, the effectiveness of the judiciary in dealing with child exploitation cases and any possible measures to implement.
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The Waco massacre remains to be one of the still bizarre and unexplainable events in American history. It all began when Vernon Howell, later called David Koresh, became head of the Branch Davidians and soon started to implant martyrdom ideas on the followers. In anticipation of an imminent attack from the federal government, Koresh as on the leader of the Texan ranch of a religious cult sort to acquire firearms, an action that resulted in a 50-day siege in which 76 people died including men, children, and women. Koresh had managed to form the cult by convincing his followers that God gave him a premonition from the Biblical teachings that one day the world as they knew would come to an end. Convincingly, one would say Koresh, was a malicious member of the Branch Davidian crowd.
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In 2011, a massive earthquake struck Japan causing a devastating tsunami, which affected the country’s economy. The automobile industry suffered the worst loss for several years as a direct result of the tsunami. Nissan is one of the many auto manufacturers that were affected why the disaster and is yet to recover fully. This paper describes how operations management practices will help the company to recover and remain more resilient.
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The scientific name for diabetes is diabetes mellitus. This refers to a several disorders that describe a person’s inability to create or use insulin effectively. As a result, people who are sick with diabetes often have high blood sugar, and this could result in physiological damage if left uncontrolled. Individuals with Type I and Type II diabetes both experience a range of symptoms included frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger (Fahien and MacDonald, 2002). When symptoms are left ignored, more harmful symptoms could occur. These include diabetic ketoacidosis, which results in death. These individuals could also experience comas before death.
Ultimately, diabetes occurs because the pancreas is typically responsible for producing insulin. However, diabetic patients are either unable to produce insulin or insulin machinery in the cells are damaged, which means that the insulin produced is not usable by the body (Fahien and MacDonald, 2002). Diabetes could also occur when cells are unable to properly respond to the insulin that is made, either due to mutations in the cells or insulin itself.
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