Revolutionary America

Philosophy of the Declaration of Independence

The American struggle for independence from the British Rule involved a long and protracted war. A total of thirteen states began the war and took it all the way to the beginning of July 1776 when the Declaration of Independence document was drafted. Thomas Jefferson was the principal author of the document that granted America independence under the philosophy of freedom for all human beings. In the words embodied in the declaration, Jefferson and team reminded the world that all humans were created equal and this granted them rights to live autonomously; not subjected to any form of control by others. The document inspired the spirit of nationalism and self-realization among all Americans, finally triggering a revolutionary mindset among all citizens. The ripple effect of the revolution spread through the American states later, leading to total independence of all states.

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Short Answer Essay Questions

  1. Describe the process of perception as a series of steps, beginning with the environmental stimulus and culminating in the behavioral responses of perceiving, recognizing, and acting.

The perceptual process is a process that happens in seven steps. Though, as much as the processes are expected to happen in an orderly manner, they do happen concurrently or in a reverse manner.  However, being that there are five parts of the process including stimuli, transduction, neural processing and behavioral, in stimuli, environmental stimulus is the first step amongst the seven steps in the perceptual process. And most of the times, this step is always described by giving an example of a tree that one may observe.

In step two, transformation or rather the principle of transformation becomes another issue whereby the light is reflected and transformed. This happens in between the perception and environmental stimulus. The information of the tree is then contained in the retina after the light has been transformed and reflected after traveling throughout the atmosphere.

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Communication Training Plan

Many projects in Kelsey Elementary fail due to lack of proper employee engagement, satisfaction, and quality communication. It is noted that employee training improves efficiency and commitment in the organization (Ramdhani, Ramdhani & Ainissyifa, 2017). As such, designing a training program is a critical component in enhancing organizational change, coupled with improving employee involvement. Consequently, an extensive program will involve different people; and as such, it is, therefore, essential to keep the relevant people informed of their responsibility in this occasion and keeping people interested in the training by showing them that the company considers their interests.

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Marxs and how it relates to present day

Marxist theories about social classes and class struggles continue to be applicable or apparent today – they are seen everywhere, especially in Western capitalist societies. According to Marx and Friedrich Engels, Marxism generates two classes of people: the proletarians as well as the bourgeois. The former refers to the working class, and the latter refers to the capitalists or owners of the means of production (Alfarsi n.p). The theorists believed that the capitalists would always strive to earn more profits, and to do so, they would continue to take advantage of the laborers by making them work more for less pay. On the other hand, the working class will aspire to earn higher wages or earn more in general so that they would devote more hours. Because greed and self-interest exist, the gap between the two groups will continue to grow bigger (Alfarsi n.p). Capitalists believe that by empowering the laborers can endanger their social position so very few would do that. This is apparent in most organizations, especially the large ones, today.

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Art, in the 19th Century, as Mechanism for Representing Politics


The 19th century was characterized by many famous artists and the fame they came along with it. Romanticism and realism are some of the best themes of painting that were invented in the past. Despite being painted in two different periods of time with various stylistic choices, the pictures of Manet and Goya both vividly portray the political unrest that was occurring in society. The two artists have used art to explain political views of different politicians and political events during that time. Briefly, their work helped to describe the relationship that existed between power and skill that took place across different cultures and epochs. Therefore, the two artists used their work to portray events, as well as political activities that occurred or which had chances of happening. They had to take a social dimension as a way of evaluating different techniques that can compel the society to undertake a significant social change. One of the general views that made the use of the art to explain political events was based on the fact that it was deemed a free spirit capable of restructuring and defining its course. Therefore, this paper is set to determine how the Art in the 19th century represented various political events and policies.

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Ariel and the Arielismo in Spanish-American literature

Arielismo is a term that refers to the speculative standard of the Hispanic American ideology. The term has its origin from the work of José Enrique Rodo entitled Ariel whose publication was in the year 1900.  The work titled Ariel is a masterpiece that propagates a consolidative perspective of the Greco-Roman culture, the current perspectives of the late nineteenth century as well as the Judeo-Christian custom (Young et al.).  The ideology has been utilized in establishing juxtaposition between a high-end intellectual endeavor and a high custom being on one side and on the opposite side having a direct approach to the problems the Latin Americans faced. The ideology has been termed by the critics who embrace a practical approach as an educational provocation and at the same time as a cultural epitome. However, the question that is yet unanswered is that of those who advocate for it not addressing the economic, social, and political necessitates of the people of Latin America (de Azúa &Carlos).

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The Economic Basis and Development of Fiscal Policy

Economic basis for Fiscal Policy

Fiscal policy is designed to influence the prevailing tax rates and the spending of the consumers within the country. This is when the government legislates changes to the prevailing tax rates to stimulate economic activity. This is usually done by reducing taxes using tax cuts to stimulate consumption, expenditure, and investment (Modjtahedi, 2011)

Policy and Challenges

Two types of fiscal policy, i.e., expansionary fiscal policy and contractionary fiscal policy exist. Expansionary fiscal policy, which is designed to encourage economic growth, is the most commonly employed by governments. Owing to its nature, the expansionary fiscal policy is predominantly employed in recessions by reducing taxes or increasing government expenditure. Contractionary fiscal policy, which is designed to slow economic growth, is rarely used by governments. Owing to its nature, it is mainly employed to reduce inflation. Contractionary fiscal policies reduce government expenditure and increase taxes (Mankiw, 2014).

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